Friday 25 August 2023

Blog shared by Ms. Baljeet Kaur (Asst. Prof. in Commerce)

 Modes of entry to the International Business

1. Exporting-- Exporting is the most traditional method of entering into foreign market which refers to the sale of goods/services produced by a company based in one country to customers that reside in a different country. Exports deal with physical movement of goods and services from one place to another. 

2. Complementary Exporting/Piggy Backing-- Complementary exporting involves collaborative agreements with other firms wherein distribution channels of another firm (known as carrier) are used by the domestic company (known as rider) to make its product available in the overseas market. This is also known as piggy backing. 

3. Co-operative Export- Firms involved in collaborative agreement with other firms to produce products to export. As small firms have insufficient resources, lack of adequate management or less market resources available, they do not achieve economies of scale in manufacturing. That's why by cooperating with each other these firms achieve higher economies of scale. 

4. Manufacturing Abroad– this is the most common and easiest way to enter into international business. Under this strategy goods are produced in the foreign country itself where they have to be actually sold. Moreover this method is more suitable for the firms where home currency is strong as compared to the foreign currency. As manufacturing abroad in such a country will reduce the cost of production and will help the firm to gain maximum efficiency. 

5. Investment entry mode– This mode is selected when social economic and political environment in the foreign country is conducive for such Investments in this mode company invest funds in the foreign country besides using its on technology managerial expertise and risk bearing capacity investment entry mode may be selected for those countries where factors a production like land, labor are available in abundance and at cheaper rates and the physical infrastructure is well developed. Various methods used in this mode like wholly owned subsidiaries, assembly operations, joint ventures, strategic Alliance, green field and brown field investments, merger and acquisitions. 

6. Counter Trade– Counter trade is bilateral agreement between two firms of different countries where in one business unit import goods from a second firm in another country on the condition that the second firm will also import goods of the same value from the first firm. 

Blog shared by Ms. Manisha (Asst. Prof. in Political Science)

 Veto Power & its type.

A veto is an Indigenous right to reject a decision or offer made by a law-making body.

What is the veto Power of India?

The President has three veto Powers absolute, suspense and Pocket. The President Can Shoot the bill back to Parliament for Changes which Constitutes a limited veto that' Can be hoofed by a Simple majority

Veto Power of the President: (Meaning),

The President of India has three different features of veto power that he might use throughout the bill blessing Process, as Started in Article III. It will not be able to become law or an act if the President declines the sign the bill for whatever reason. A bill must be approved by both houses of the Indian parliament in order to become law or an act.

Veto Power of President Types

Article 111 of the Indian Constitution specifies that the President of India has a limited right of veto. The President is granted three different vetoes:

Absolute Veto Power

Suspensive Veto Power

Pocket Veto Power

Absolute Veto Power of Indian President

When a measure is given to the president after being approved by the parliament, he has absolute discretion to accept or reject it. As a result, it won’t result in the bill being a law or an act. The law stagnates and dies when the president exercises his absolute veto because even after it is approved by the legislature, he does not 

Suspensive Veto Power of President

The President can send a law back to the legislature for reconsideration when using the Suspensive Veto.

Pocket Veto Power of President

 In a pocket veto, the president might choose not to act on a bill that has been offered to him by the legislature for an indefinite period of time without giving a reason or rejecting it. 

Explain the types of veto power in more detail:

National Veto Power: In this context, the term usually refers to the power of a country’s leader or executive branch to reject legislation passed by the country’s legislative body. In some systems, such as the United States, the President has the authority to veto bills passed by Congress, which can then be overridden by a two-thirds majority vote in both houses.

UN Security Council Veto Power: The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is a powerful body responsible for maintaining international peace and security. It consists of five permanent members (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) that possess veto power. When the UNSC discusses resolutions, any of these five members can cast a veto, preventing the resolution from being adopted, regardless of how many other member states support it.

European Union (EU) Veto Power: Certain decisions within the European Union require unanimous agreement among all member states. This means that any member state has the power to veto a decision, effectively blocking its implementation.

NATO Consensus Rule: In the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), decision-making is typically based on a consensus rule. Each member state has the power to veto any proposal that they believe may compromise their security or national interest.

International Financial Institutions: Some international financial institutions, like the International Monetary Fund (IMF), have governance structures that grant veto power to certain member countries. Major decisions may require the approval of a supermajority, which includes the support of key stakeholders with veto power.

Presidential Veto: In presidential system of government, the head of state or the president may have the power to veto legislation passed by the legislative body. This allows the president to prevent a bill from becoming law unless it is overridden by a supermajority vote in the legislature.

Governor’s Veto: In some federal systems, like the United States, individual states grant their governors the authority to veto state-level legislation.

Line-Item Veto: This type of veto allows the executive (president or governor) to reject specific parts or provisions of a bill while signing the rest into law. This power is not universally available and may be subject to constitutional constraints.

Pocket Veto: Occurs when the executive fails to sign or reject a bill within a specified period (usually at the end of a legislative session). In some countries, if the executive does not act on the bill within the timeframe, it is automatically vetoed.

Committee Veto: In parliamentary systems, legislative committees may possess the power to block or delay legislation by not moving it forward for consideration.

Shareholder Veto: In corporate governance, shareholders of a company may have the power to veto certain decisions or corporate actions through voting rights.

Coalition Veto: In multiparty systems, coalition partners may have the ability to veto certain policy decisions or proposals to maintain their agreement to work together.

Judicial Veto: In some countries with a strong judicial system, the judiciary may have the authority to invalidate or nullify legislation that is deemed unconstitutional.

Each type of veto power has its nuances and implications depending on the political or organizational context in which it is applied.

Saturday 5 August 2023

Blog shared by Dr. Sandeep Kaur(Asst. Prof. in Commerce)


Social Media Use and Mental Health Issues

In recent times, social media has become the way of our lives, even among adolescents. During COVID-19 pandemic period, the usage of Internet and social networking sites namely Instagram, TikTok, and YouTube has increased rapidly. During nationwide “lockdown”, the Internet usage allowed communication with peers and the continuity activities such as school teaching. An increased level of engagement with the internet was required for educational and other purposes due to the pandemic, which potentially predisposed college students to a range of experiences that may be either positive or negative.  Ironically for a technology that is designed to bring people closer together, spending too much time engaging with social media can actually make you feel more lonely and isolated and exacerbate mental health problems such as anxiety and depression.

However, we have to keep in mind that excessive media usage may be related to some adverse consequences especially in the most vulnerable people, such as the adolescents. Most identified problems associated with social media use are sleep disorder, depression, psychological problems, addiction, anxiety, behavioral problems, reduced physical activity, sight problem, and headache. According to the World Health Organization, 264 million individuals worldwide suffer from depression-a condition characterized by feelings of low self-worth, impaired concentration, and disturbed sleep, among various other maladaptive symptoms. Adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age are more vulnerable, with a 52% increase in the prevalence of depression among adolescents from 2009 to 2017. Depression leads to many serious problems including failure to complete education, higher unplanned parenthood rates, poorer interpersonal relations, and heightened risk of substance abuse and suicidality.

The negative aspects of social media use

However, multiple studies have found a strong link between heavy social media and an increased risk for depression, anxiety, loneliness, self-harm and even suicidal thoughts. Social media may promote negative experiences such as:

Inadequacy about your life or appearance: Even if you know that images you’re viewing on social media are manipulated, they can still make you feel insecure about how you look or what’s going on in your own life.

Fear of missing out (FOMO): While FOMO has been around far longer than social media, sites such as Facebook and Instagram seem to exacerbate feelings that others are having more fun or living better lives than you are. The idea that you’re missing out on certain things can impact your self-esteem, trigger anxiety, and fuel even greater social media use, much like an addiction. 

Isolation: A study at the University of Pennsylvania found that high usage of Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram increases rather decreases feelings of loneliness.

Depression and anxiety: Human beings need face-to-face contact to be mentally healthy. The more you prioritize social media interaction over in-person relationships, the more you’re at risk for developing or exacerbating mood disorders such as anxiety and depression.

Cyberbullying: Social media platforms such as Twitter can be hotspots for spreading hurtful rumors, lies, and abuse that can leave lasting emotional scars.

The health emergency has a strong impact on the mental and psychological health of adolescents causing change in their routine and daily activities. Public and medical awareness must rise over this topic and new prevention measures must be found, starting with health practitioners and websites developers. Pediatricians and parents should be aware of the risks associated to a problematic social media use for the young’s health and try to prevent negative outcomes in accordance with the family.

ਲਾਇਲਪੁਰ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਕਾਲਜ ਕਪੂਰਥਲਾ ਵਿਖੇ ਸੰਵਿਧਾਨ ਦਿਵਸ ਨੂੰ ਸਮਰਪਿਤ ਕਰਵਾਇਆ ਵਿਸ਼ੇਸ਼ ਲੈ‌ਕਚਰ

  ਵਿੱਦਿਆ ਦੇ ਖੇਤਰ ਦੀ ਨਾਮਵਰ ਸੰਸਥਾ ਲਾਇਲਪੁਰ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਕਾਲਜ, ਅਰਬਨ ਅਸਟੇਟ ਕਪੂਰਥਲਾ  ਵਿਖੇ ਕਾਲਜ ਦੇ ਲੀਗਲ ਲਿਟਰੇਸੀ ਸੈੱਲ ਅਤੇ ਰਾਜਨੀਤੀ ਸ਼ਾਸਤਰ ਵਿਭਾਗ ਵੱਲੋਂ ਸੰਵਿਧ...