ਲਾਇਲਪੁਰ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਕਾਲਜ ਕਪੂਰਥਲਾ ਵਿਖੇ ਕਰਾਇਆ ਗਿਆ ਸਾਲਾਨਾ ਇਨਾਮ ਵੰਡ ਸਮਾਗਮ।
Friday 28 April 2023
Wednesday 19 April 2023
Inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over time. This means that the purchasing power of the currency declines, as it takes more units of currency to buy the same amount of goods and services. Inflation can be caused by various factors, including an increase in the money supply, rising demand for goods and services, or a decrease in the supply of goods and services.
Inflation can have both positive and negative effects on an economy. On the positive side, moderate inflation can encourage investment and growth by increasing the profits of businesses, and can help to reduce the burden of debt for borrowers. On the negative side, high inflation can erode the value of savings and income, causing a decline in living standards and potentially leading to social unrest.
Central banks typically aim to maintain low and stable inflation through monetary policy, such as adjusting interest rates or controlling the money supply. In some cases, governments may also implement fiscal policies, such as increasing taxes or reducing spending, to address inflationary pressures.
It is important for individuals and businesses to be aware of inflation and its potential impacts on their financial well-being. This can include strategies such as investing in assets that appreciate in value over time, diversifying investments, and seeking out inflation-protected assets like inflation-indexed bonds.
Monday 17 April 2023
Crowd funding is a method of raising capital to sponsor endeavors and companies. Fundraisers can use online platforms to gather money from a sizable audience. By leveraging the power of the online community, you can also gain useful market insights and access to new customers. Crowd funding is most frequently used by startup businesses or growing businesses as a way to access alternative funds.
How is crowd sourcing carried out?
If the fundraising campaign is successful, crowdfunding platforms typically charge fundraisers a fee. Platforms for crowdfunding are required to offer a safe and simple service in exchange. A funding strategy that is all-or-nothing is used by many platforms. This implies that if you meet your goal, you will receive the money, and if not, everyone will receive their money back with no repercussions or financial loss. There are several different sorts of crowdsourcing.
Main forms of crowd funding:
Peer-to-peer lending: With the idea that interest will be added to the loan, the public lends money to a business. It is fairly comparable to conventional bank borrowing, with the exception that you borrow from several investors instead.
Equity crowdfunding: sale of a portion of a company to several investors in exchange for capital. The concept is comparable to the purchase or sale of common stock on a stock exchange or to a venture capitalist.
Rewards-based crowdfunding: A non-financial reward, such as goods or services, is typically expected in compensation for a person's contribution when they donate to a cause or business.
Donation-based crowdfunding: While obtaining no monetary or material benefit, people make tiny donations to help a particular humanitarian cause to reach its bigger financing goal.
Profit-sharing: Businesses may accept investment from the public in exchange for a share of their future earnings or sales.
Qualities of a Good Leader
Leadership is the ability to influence the behavior of a group of individuals. A leader should possess and develop certain traits for exerting his influence on the group for the best results from the individuals. Leadership qualities can be classified into two categories viz.
(a) Personal Traits and (b) Managerial Traits
(A) Personal Traits
A successful leader should possess the following personal qualities:
1. Dynamic Personality: A leader has to perform various responsibilities. Therefore, he must have dynamic personality in terms of sound health, mature thinking, cool temperament, optimistic outlook, self confidence, good listener, etc. All these characteristics will be helpful to influence the behavior of subordinates
2. Energetic: He should be energetic and strong. It implies that if he possesses strong will power, then impossible things will become easy for him.
3. Intellectual Capacity: A leader should have intellectual capacity to face different problems of business. The various intellectual traits are high degree of intelligence scientific and modern approach, sound judgement etc.
4.Initiative: He should have ability to take initiative and should develop new ideas in order to win co-operation of subordinates
5. Emotional stability: A leader should have balanced temperament. For emotional tranquility, a leader should overcome moodiness, inconsistency and disappointment.
6.Sense of responsibility: A leader must bear the burden of all his decisions upon himself Authority and responsibility go together. A leader possesses authority and he must also be responsible.
7. Character: A leader should be a man of character. He should be a symbol of faultless character and conduct. His actions and attitudes should be morally justifiable. He should also be honest.
8. Courage: He should be bold enough to face any situation. According to Field Marshal Slim, "without courage there are no virtues like faith, hope, charity and all the rest do not become virtues until there is courage to exercise them.
9. Objectivity: Objectivity is a vital aspect of analytical decision making It implies that the decisions of a leader should not be based on any personal bias, rather they should be based on objectivity.
10. Foresight: A successful leader is one who has potential to develop his policies and programs with foresight and logical reasoning.
11. Flexibility: A leader should have flexible mind. He should understand the changing situations and circumstances and should be prepared to change himself according to these changing situations.
12. Integrity: Integrity means moral soundness. It means that a leader must have integrity or lack of favoritism while dealing with others. According to Fredrick Taylor, "Integrity is that straight forward honesty of purpose which makes a man truthful, not only to others but to himself, which makes a man high-minded and gives him high aspirations and high ideals."
13. Empathy: A leader has to respect other persons, their rights, beliefs, values, feelings etc. It implies that he must have ability to understand the things from other's point of view.
14. Knowledge of Human Relations: A leader should have adequate knowledge to deal with human beings. He should establish good human relations with his subordinates by understanding their demands, problems, difficulties arising during work, etc.
(B) Managerial Traits
A successful leader should also possess certain qualities pertaining to managerial and organizing ability, especially with reference to the business of the undertaking. Important traits are
1. Technical knowledge: A leader should be well conversant with technical aspects of the activities undertaken by the business enterprise. Technical knowledge about the business will enable him to take right decisions on different matters relating to the business.
2. Organizational Ability: (a) He should perform the functions of an intermediary between the top management and working groups. (b) He must have thorough knowledge regarding the principles of time management. (c) He must communicate the organizational policies, procedures, programs to the members of the organization (d) He must have capability to build work culture in the organization, (e) He must develop a climate of co-operation among workers.
Thus, the main aim of a successful leader should be to get best of things done through the efforts of others.
3. Ability to deal with people: Leadership is primarily concerned with managing people. The leader should have insight into psychological problems of human relationships such as aptitudes, emotions, abilities and interests etc. He has to inspire and motivate the personnel.
4. Ability to judge and decide promptly: A leader should possess the ability to judge others. A successful leader is one who understands the matter quickly, weighs the relative worth of alternative courses of action and reaches proper decision which is in the best interest of the business.
In the last, we can say that it is very difficult to get a person enjoying all these qualities. A person enjoying most of these is preferred.
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